With Dispatch Legal Definition
Law No. 81/2017, known as the “Statute of Self-Employment”, entered into force on 6 June 2017 and introduced a “Statute” of the rights and protection of self-employed workers.  Far from imitating to a lesser extent the typical rights of subordinate workers, it reinforces and protects the specific characteristics of the organisational and management autonomy of independent contractors to support all forms of work not covered by labour legislation. According to the Directive, restrictions are justified on grounds of general public interest. In particular, the protection of temporary agency workers is a matter of public interest under Article 4(1) of that directive. Furthermore, when interpreting the Directive, account should be taken of the fact that the right to strike as such is protected as a fundamental right by Article 28 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. The Directive does not expressly affect national legislation or practice prohibiting the replacement of striking workers by temporary agency workers.  As far as EU law is concerned, there is therefore no doubt as to the validity of § 11(5) of the AÜG. I. Polish labour law – No third category, but unlimited use of service contractsBasically, the Polish labour market is characterised by a binary segmentation between subordinate or dependent employment, on the one hand, and self-employment or self-employment, on the other.  In practice, however, Polish law offers many possibilities for carrying out dependent work on the basis of a civil law contract. The most typical examples of such contracts are a specific contract (umowa o dzielo) or a contract for the provision of unspecified tasks (service contract, umowa zlecenia). These contracts can be offered to persons without registered commercial activity as well as to “self-employed persons”.
There are no special guarantees against the use of civil contracts to award works or services. It is estimated that at least 1 million unregistered workers are employed exclusively under civil contracts and about 3 million workers work as one-person businesses, but the figures can be much higher. This view has many advantages. The Times (London) reported what Lord Adonis, former Labour education secretary, called the “greed” of some heavily overpaid “vice-chancellors,” referring to Dame Glynis Breakwell, vice-chancellor of Bath, who received $451,000 (including pension contributions).  The average package for British Vice-Chancellors was £268,103.  Michael Shattuck, a visiting professor at UCL, attributes this to the transformation of higher education into a business model, with boards filled with people from industry and finance and relatively few real academics.  The Committee emphasized that existing basic legislation prohibiting discrimination on the basis of trade union membership is only effective if it is complemented by procedures ensuring effective protection against such discrimination. In the summary of recommendations, the Committee called on the Government of Russia to take measures to bring legislation into line with the principles of freedom of association and the right to collective bargaining, to take the necessary steps to remove trade union leaflets from the list of extremist literature and to report on the progress made.  in particular, the reason why citizen Danilenkov and thirty-two Russian citizens filed a complaint with the International Labour Organization Committee on Freedom of Association of the Russian Trade Union Confederation and then with the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR). The complaint was filed under Article 34 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.
The complainants alleged a violation of the right to freedom of association and requested the prohibition of discrimination. In the light of the case, the European Court of Human Rights concluded that the State had failed to fulfil its positive obligations to introduce effective and clear judicial protection against discrimination on the basis of trade union membership. Consequently, there has been a violation of Article 14 taken in conjunction with Article 11 of the Convention.7 As can be seen from this note, the Turin judge decided the case by looking in the rear-view mirror. The decision uncritically echoes the case law considered crucial to determining employment, namely whether workers are free to determine their schedule. In search of a precedent, the judge applied the same reasoning as thirty years ago for delivery couriers on mopeds, even though technological advances and the regulatory framework have made significant progress. It refrained from examining in detail the effects of digital transformation on labour relations, particularly in the area of last-mile logistics. He argued that elements such as the working conditions set by the platform, the indication of the places where the supplies are to be made and the exact time within which the deliveries must be made, the frequent monitoring activity by the GPS function must be considered as “defining the patterns of the business model and not as characteristic elements of the nature of the relationship” (p. 11). probably a strong legal argument.[ Yet the Foodora case is a missed opportunity to apply a provision of the Platform Employment Act that aims to extend employment protections to workers who are only nominally self-employed, without too much upheaval. “Article 2 of Legislative Decree 81/2015 is worded, it has a narrower scope than the concept of employment” (p.
14), as the judge disputes, but this confusing interpretation seems contrary to the spirit, if not the letter, of the new law. This last point of the agreement aims to solve a problem of unpaid overtime in Spain and fraudulent behaviour on part-time contracts. In fact, in recent years, trade unions and labour inspectorates have reported the existence of part-time contract workers who actually work full-time. In this way, the company pays less taxes and less social security contributions, which ultimately has a negative effect on the employee`s pension. It is clear that the legal framework of working from home is not adapted to the regulation of remote work, since it does not correspond to its specific nature, it does not determine the nature of communication between employer and employee, does not impose obligations on the employer in the field of safety at work and the protection of workers` privacy. With regard to international labour treaties applicable in a given region, the right to join national or international organizations for the protection of one`s own economic and social interests is enshrined in article 5 of the European Social Charter, ratified by the Russian Federation in 2009. It establishes the right of workers and employers to establish and join local, national and international organizations for the protection of their economic and social interests. The legality of using a biometric database in the workplace (based on employees` fingerprints) was recently raised by the Israel Labor Court (NLC) in the case The Histadrut vs. the Municipality of Qalansuwa (judgment of 15 March 2017).
The Israeli legislature has not yet settled this issue. Therefore, the NLC`s decision at the national level seems decisive. In addition, the NLC decision addresses issues of consent in relation to dismissal, as well as whether consent should be given by employee representatives or by individual employees, and also raises specific rule issues in relation to flexible standards.